Vitamin A and Carotenoid Metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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chylomicron ROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium Nuclear receptors ? Cytochrome P450 family Blood Diet ? RE + dietary lipids Rhodopsin formation ? ? RA-binding proteins ROL-binding proteins Liver/other organs RE + dietary lipids Enterocyte RE + dietary lipids ? 11-cis binding protein gap junction communication PPAR pathways ? Retinal pigment epithelium specific Nucleus Betacarotene Bcmo1 Rbp7 Abcg8 Retinol Vitamin A Rdh12 Dhrs3 Npc1l1 Aldh1a3 Abcg5 11-cis-Retinol Lpl all-trans Retinol Vitamin A Beta-Cryptoxanthin RPE65 Bcdo2 MAPK Zeaxanthin Lutein 11-cis-Retinal Betacarotene Scarb1 Lycopene Retinyl ester Sult2b1 all-trans Retinal All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol 9-cis-Retinal Rdh10 Retsat Rbp1 Adh4 Vitamin D3 Sult1a1 all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acid Bcmo1 Cd36 Violaxanthin Aldh1a2 13,14 dehydroretinal Canthaxanthin Scarb1 13,14 dehydro RA 9-cis-Retinoic acid Astaxanthin Lrat Aldh1a1 Rdh5 Rdh8 Adh1 9-cis-Retinol Crabp2 Crabp1 Rlbp1 Alpha-Carotene Retinol Vitamin A beta 10' apocorotenal Betacarotene Rbp2 Retinyl ester Bcmo1 Rbp4 Retinal Vitamin A aldehyde Betacarotene Retinol dehydrogenases Cyp26b1 Cyp2e1 Cyp26a1 Rdh5 Rdh12 all-transe 4-oxo RA 4-oxo-Retinoic acid ARAT Lrat Awat RARa RXRb RXRa RARg RXRg RARb Aldh1a1 Aldh1a2 Aldh1a3 Name: Vitamin A and Carotenoid Metabolism License: CC BY 2.0 Last Modified: 10/17/2013 Organism: Homo sapiens


This pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some additional entities (see Waagmeester et al. 2009).

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Ontology Terms



  1. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed
  2. Sun Y, Ng L, Lam W, Lo CK, Chan PT, Yuen YL, Wong PF, Tsang DS, Cheung WT, Lee SS; ''Identification and characterization of a novel mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-regulated and starvation-induced gene, Ppsig.''; Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed
  3. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed
  4. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed
  5. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed
  6. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed
  7. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed
  8. Waagmeester A, Pezik P, Coort S, Tourniaire F, Evelo C, Rebholz-Schuhmann D; ''Pathway enrichment based on text mining and its validation on carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism.''; OMICS, 2009 PubMed
  9. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed
  10. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed
  11. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed
  12. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed
  13. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed
  14. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed
  15. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed
  16. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed
  17. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed
  18. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed
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97560view 00:17, 25 May 2018Fehrhartfixed connections
83589view 03:59, 26 November 2015EgonwAdded a reference for the function of Retsat.
79968view 08:43, 28 April 2015ZariChanged Enzyme ID to Entrez gene
74442view 00:24, 20 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71992view 04:21, 24 October 2013MkutmonChanged Unknown -> GeneProduct for Scarb1
71370view 11:37, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70757view 13:29, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Type to Sult1a1
70756view 13:28, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Types for missing entries
70033view 18:59, 11 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
68936view 10:34, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
68052view 05:32, 29 June 2013EgonwFixed EC number data sources.
67744view 04:57, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'vitamin A and metabolites signaling pathway' added !
59134view 15:37, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
52902view 02:57, 24 October 2012AnweshaPeriodical save, work in progress
46094view 20:31, 14 December 2011AlexanderPicoconverted hugo to ensembl
46090view 19:28, 14 December 2011AllanKuchinskyupdated HGNC IDs
45017view 11:32, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'metabolic pathway of cofactors and vitamins' added !
41087view 16:21, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38841view 10:39, 24 September 2010KhanspersChanged nucleus
38356view 00:17, 2 September 2010ThomasReverted to version '11:08, 17 May 2010' by Thomas
38355view 00:16, 2 September 2010ThomasPeriodical save, work in progress
37110view 04:08, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37109view 04:07, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat2
37108view 03:45, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat
37107view 03:28, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37106view 03:21, 17 May 2010EveloCorrected typo in title
37105view 03:19, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connections
37103view 03:15, 17 May 2010EveloModified title and version date
36978view 04:10, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36977view 04:07, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36976view 03:57, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36975view 03:47, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36974view 03:35, 14 May 2010EveloMetabolites and connectors
36973view 03:32, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36972view 03:21, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36971view 03:11, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36970view 03:01, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36969view 02:50, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36968view 02:40, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36967view 02:30, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36966view 02:19, 14 May 2010EveloModified description
36965view 11:04, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36964view 10:55, 13 May 2010EveloAdded retinol dh
36963view 10:53, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36962view 10:50, 13 May 2010EveloSafety
36961view 10:22, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36959view 10:12, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36950view 10:00, 13 May 2010EveloMinor edits
36944view 04:34, 13 May 2010EveloCorrected many identifiers
36943view 04:30, 13 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
11-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB02152 (HMDB)
11-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06216 (HMDB)
13,14 dehydro RAMetabolite
13,14 dehydroretinalMetabolite
4-oxo-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB06285 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB06218 (HMDB)
9-cis-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB02369 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06217 (HMDB)
ARATProtein8694 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg5GeneProduct64240 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg8GeneProduct64241 (Entrez Gene)
Adh1GeneProduct124 (Entrez Gene)
Adh4GeneProduct127 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a1GeneProduct216 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a2GeneProduct8854 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3GeneProduct220 (Entrez Gene)
All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolMetaboliteHMDB11618 (HMDB)
Alpha-CaroteneMetaboliteHMDB03993 (HMDB)
AstaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02204 (HMDB)
AwatGeneProduct158835 (Entrez Gene)
Bcdo2GeneProduct83875 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo1GeneProduct53630 (Entrez Gene)
Beta-CryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02268 (HMDB)
BetacaroteneMetaboliteHMDB00561 (HMDB)
CanthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03154 (HMDB)
Cd36GeneProduct948 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp1GeneProduct1381 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp2GeneProduct1382 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a1GeneProduct1592 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b1GeneProduct56603 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e1GeneProduct1571 (Entrez Gene)
Dhrs3GeneProduct9249 (Entrez Gene)
LplGeneProduct4023 (Entrez Gene)
LratGeneProductENSG00000121207 (Ensembl)
LuteinMetaboliteHMDB03233 (HMDB)
LycopeneMetaboliteHMDB03000 (HMDB)
MAPKGeneProduct5594 (Entrez Gene)
Npc1l1GeneProduct29881 (Entrez Gene)
RARaGeneProduct5914 (Entrez Gene)
RARbGeneProduct5915 (Entrez Gene)
RARgGeneProduct5916 (Entrez Gene)
RPE65GeneProduct6121 (Entrez Gene)
RXRaGeneProduct6256 (Entrez Gene)
RXRbGeneProduct6257 (Entrez Gene)
RXRgGeneProduct6258 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp1GeneProduct5947 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp2GeneProduct5948 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp4GeneProduct5950 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp7GeneProduct116362 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10GeneProduct157506 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12GeneProduct145226 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh5GeneProduct5959 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh8GeneProduct50700 (Entrez Gene)
Retinal Vitamin A aldehydeMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
Retinol dehydrogenasesGeneProduct195814 (Entrez Gene)
Retinyl esterMetaboliteHMDB03598 (HMDB)
RetsatGeneProduct54884 (Entrez Gene)
Rlbp1GeneProduct6017 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1GeneProduct949 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a1GeneProduct6817 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b1GeneProduct6820 (Entrez Gene)
ViolaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03101 (HMDB)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB00876 (HMDB)
ZeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02789 (HMDB)
all-trans RetinalMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acidMetaboliteHMDB01852 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
all-transe 4-oxo RAMetabolite
beta 10' apocorotenalMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>