Long-Day Flowering Time Pathway (Arabidopsis thaliana)

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Inhibits/down_regulates/represses Activates/upregulates protein-protein interaction Circadian clock entrainment CIRCADIAN CLOCK CCA1 TOC-1 LHY CK2 Casein Kinase Complex beta subunit paralogs alpha subunit paralogs CK2 alpha A CK2 alpha B CK2B1 CK2 alpha C CK2B4 CK2B2 CK2B3 CK2 alpha Cp Flower Development [Pathway WP618] Photoperiod Long Day Vernalization Pathway FRI Autonomous flowering time pathway FCA LD PHYA CRY2 SOC1 CRY1 PHYB PHYD CO PHYE FT GI FKF1 PIF6 ELF4 FLC SPY Gibberellic Acid ELF3 LUX PRR9 PRR7 GI ELF3 COP1 Name: Long-Day Flowering Time Pathway License: CC BY 2.0 Organism: Arabidopsis thaliana


Flowering time in a plant is associated often with the property of when the plant flowers. However, this property is dependent on several components of environment (light, photoperiod and temperature), gene regulation and several biological processes besides the genetic makeup of the plant. The time taken by the plant to flower also depends on the when the vegetative shoot apical meristem transitions into the reproductive shoot apical meristem. The correct timing and perception of the signal is essential to successful flower development in a timely manner. In Arabidopsis the day length (photoperiod) can control several plant processes including the flowering time. Arabidopsis is a facultative long-day plant since its flowering is promoted by the long days (~16 hours light; 8 hours dark), and delayed, in shortday conditions (8 hours light, 16 hours dark). As compared to rice which is a short day plant. Flowering in rice is induced by short day length photoperiod.

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  1. Pruneda-Paz JL, Breton G, Para A, Kay SA; ''A functional genomics approach reveals CHE as a component of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.''; Science, 2009 PubMed
  2. Daniel X, Sugano S, Tobin EM; ''CK2 phosphorylation of CCA1 is necessary for its circadian oscillator function in Arabidopsis.''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004 PubMed
  3. Yu JW, Rubio V, Lee NY, Bai S, Lee SY, Kim SS, Liu L, Zhang Y, Irigoyen ML, Sullivan JA, Lee I, Xie Q, Paek NC, Deng XW; ''COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability.''; Mol Cell, 2008 PubMed
  4. Salinas P, Fuentes D, Vidal E, Jordana X, Echeverria M, Holuigue L; ''An extensive survey of CK2 alpha and beta subunits in Arabidopsis: multiple isoforms exhibit differential subcellular localization.''; Plant Cell Physiol, 2006 PubMed
  5. Tsuchida-Mayama T, Sakai T, Hanada A, Uehara Y, Asami T, Yamaguchi S; ''Role of the phytochrome and cryptochrome signaling pathways in hypocotyl phototropism.''; Plant J, 2010 PubMed
  6. Song X, Kristie DN, Reekie EG; ''Why does elevated CO2 affect time of flowering? An exploratory study using the photoperiodic flowering mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.''; New Phytol, 2009 PubMed
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88694view 09:01, 12 August 2016JmeliusOntology Term : 'regulatory pathway' added !
68455view 12:39, 5 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
46623view 03:03, 24 February 2012DrsdLimited improvment of the clock
40489view 12:13, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
37737view 14:37, 29 June 2010Pjaiswaladded pmid
34993view 12:06, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34992view 12:04, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34991view 11:58, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34990view 11:16, 9 February 2010KhanspersUpdated xrefs
34989view 11:08, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34988view 10:57, 9 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34966view 16:30, 8 February 2010Khanspersupdated xrefs
34965view 16:21, 8 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34964view 16:11, 8 February 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
33390view 07:45, 30 November 2009MaintBotRemoved group label
32174view 14:45, 14 August 2009AlexanderPicoReverted to version '12:54, 30 March 2009' by AlexanderPico
32173view 13:01, 14 August 2009PjaiswalReverted to version '14:07, 14 August 2009' by Pjaiswal
32172view 12:59, 14 August 2009PjaiswalReverted to version '19:54, 30 March 2009' by Pjaiswal
32170view 07:07, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29075view 12:54, 30 March 2009Pjaiswaladded PMID 19286557
29074view 12:51, 30 March 2009PjaiswalLHY suppresses CHE as well
29073view 12:48, 30 March 2009PjaiswalAdded CHE gene and its interaction with TOC1 and CCA1
29072view 12:41, 30 March 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
29071view 12:33, 30 March 2009Pjaiswaladded TOC1 direct repression by CCA1
28592view 14:22, 16 February 2009Pjaiswalminor
28591view 14:19, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded xref to Gibberellic acid
28590view 14:17, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded more components
28589view 14:07, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28588view 13:57, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28587view 13:47, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28586view 13:27, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28585view 13:11, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28584view 13:01, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28583view 11:41, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28582view 11:31, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28581view 11:21, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28580view 11:07, 16 February 2009Pjaiswalmodified comments
28579view 11:06, 16 February 2009PjaiswalModified description
28578view 11:04, 16 February 2009Pjaiswaladded connection to WP618
28577view 10:56, 16 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28554view 12:43, 11 February 2009AlexanderPicoaltered visual for entrainment
28553view 12:36, 11 February 2009AlexanderPicovisual tweaks: alignment, sizing, label fonts
28395view 04:48, 11 February 2009Thomasconnected some lines
28248view 15:41, 10 February 2009Pjaiswalmodified comments and added category
28247view 15:39, 10 February 2009PjaiswalModified categories
28246view 15:38, 10 February 2009PjaiswalModified description
28245view 15:28, 10 February 2009Pjaiswaladded comments, modified CK2 complex
28244view 15:20, 10 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28243view 15:08, 10 February 2009PjaiswalPeriodical save, work in progress
28198view 13:08, 5 February 2009AlexanderPicoModified categories

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
CCA1GeneProductAT2G46830-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 is a transcriptional repressor and works similar to LHY in a regulatory feedback loop.
CK2 alpha AGeneProductAT5G67380-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2 alpha BGeneProductAT3G50000-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2 alpha CGeneProductAT2G23080-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2 alpha CpGeneProductAT2G23070-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)Found localized to plastid/chloroplast
CK2B1GeneProductAT5G47080-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2B2GeneProductAT4G17640-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2B3GeneProductAT3G60250-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CK2B4GeneProductAT2G44680-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
COGeneProductAT5G15840-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
COP1GeneProductAT2G32950-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CRY1GeneProductAT4G08920-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
CRY2GeneProductAT1G04400-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
ELF3GeneProductAT2G25930-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)EARLY FLOWERING 3 interacts with PHYB
ELF4GeneProductAT2G40080-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)EARLY FLOWERING 4 controls circadian rhythms and flowering time
FCAGeneProductAT4G16280-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)It is an RNA-binding protein that promotes transition of vegetative meristem to reproductive mesitem and is involved in RNA-mediated chromatin silencing.
FKF1GeneProductAT1G68050-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX 1 is clock-controlled and regulates transition to flowering.
FLCGeneProductAT5G10140-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a transcription factor that functions as a repressor of floral transition and contributes to temperature compensation of the circadian clock. Its expression is downregulated during cold treatment.
FRIGeneProductAT4G00650-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)Loss of function of FRIGIDA (FRI) results in early flowering.
FTGeneProductAT1G65480-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
GIGeneProductAT1G22770-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)promotes flowering by acting upstream of CO (CONSTANS), FT (FLOWERING TIME) and SOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1)
Gibberellic AcidMetabolite77-06-5 (CAS)
LDGeneProductAT4G02560-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) is a positive regulator of flowering in the autonomous pathway. Its functional disruption results in delayed flowering.
LHYGeneProductAT1G01060-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 is a transcription factor involved in circadian rythm along with MYB transcription factor.
PHYAGeneProductAT1G09570-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYBGeneProductAT2G18790-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYDGeneProductAT4G16250-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PHYEGeneProductAT4G18130-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
PIF6GeneProductAT3G62090-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 6 is a Myc-related bHLH transcription factor and physically interacts with TOC1.
SOC1GeneProductAT2G45660-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)
SPYGeneProductAT3G11540-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)SPINDLY (SPY) encodes for the enzyme N-acetyl glucosamine transferase that may glycosylate molecules involved in GA signaling. SPY acts as both a repressor of GA responses and as a positive regulation of cytokinin signalling. [imported from TAIR http://arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?id=36698&type=locus]
TOC-1GeneProductAT5G61380-TAIR-G (Gramene Arabidopsis)TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 is involved in generating circadian rythm and shortens the span of circumnutation rate. TOC1 interacts with ZTL.

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>