ACE Inhibitor Pathway (Homo sapiens)

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Zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland EDHF Blood vessels Mesangial cells around blood vessels in the kidneys NOS3 AGTR2 Ang 1-5 BDKRB1 TFs AGTR1 Aldosterone TGFB1 Bradykinin CTSG Angiotensin II KNG1 Ca++ Angiotensin I ACE ACE Inhibitor Deoxycorticosterone CMA1 Ang 1-7 Prostacyclin REN CYP11B2 MAS1 ACE2 AGT NR3C2 ATP6AP2 ACE BDKRB2 Ang 1-9 TFs ACE ACE2 Name: ACE Inhibitor Pathway Organism: Homo sapiens


The core of this pathway was elucidated over a century ago and involves the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (Ang I) by renin, its subsequent conversion to angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin converting enzyme. Ang II activates the angiotensin II receptor type 1 to induce aldosterone synthesis, increasing water and salt resorption and potassium excretion in the kidney and increasing blood pressure.

Source: PharmGKB (

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Ontology Terms



  1. Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Kakafika AI, Tziomalos K, Karagiannis A; ''Angiotensin II reactivation and aldosterone escape phenomena in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade: is oral renin inhibition the solution?''; Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2007 PubMed
  2. Huang Y, Wongamorntham S, Kasting J, McQuillan D, Owens RT, Yu L, Noble NA, Border W; ''Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, angiotensin II-independent mechanisms.''; Kidney Int, 2006 PubMed
  3. Schwartz GL, Turner ST; ''Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses.''; Am J Pharmacogenomics, 2004 PubMed
  4. Hamming I, Cooper ME, Haagmans BL, Hooper NM, Korstanje R, Osterhaus AD, Timens W, Turner AJ, Navis G, van Goor H; ''The emerging role of ACE2 in physiology and disease.''; J Pathol, 2007 PubMed
  5. Batenburg WW, Jan Danser AH; ''The (pro)renin receptor: a new addition to the renin-angiotensin system?''; Eur J Pharmacol, 2008 PubMed
  6. Weir MR; ''Effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on end-organ protection: can we do better?''; Clin Ther, 2007 PubMed
  7. McDowell SE, Coleman JJ, Ferner RE; ''Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine.''; BMJ, 2006 PubMed
  8. Maron BA, Leopold JA; ''Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function.''; Curr Opin Investig Drugs, 2008 PubMed
  9. Ferreira AJ, Raizada MK; ''Are we poised to target ACE2 for the next generation of antihypertensives?''; J Mol Med, 2008 PubMed
  10. Bassett MH, White PC, Rainey WE; ''The regulation of aldosterone synthase expression.''; Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2004 PubMed
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96328view 02:32, 8 March 2018Mkutmonremove old WP category
96005view 02:35, 15 February 2018DeSlRemoved licence number
96004view 02:33, 15 February 2018DeSlChanged MIM conversion between gene and metabolite to arrow.
92084view 11:10, 24 April 2017KhanspersReverted to version '18:16, 17 February 2016' by Khanspers
92083view 11:10, 24 April 2017Khansperstest
92082view 11:09, 24 April 2017Khanspersmoved node
84372view 11:16, 17 February 2016AlexanderPicoReverted to version '04:16, 15 October 2014' by AlexanderPico
84290view 14:56, 3 February 2016AlexanderPicoQuick edit to datanode annotation or property
77712view 04:16, 15 October 2014EgonwAdded KEGG IDs for ang (1-5) and and (1-7).
77711view 04:04, 15 October 2014EgonwAdded a ChemSpider ID for "Ang 1-7".
77710view 03:47, 15 October 2014EgonwRemoved a spuruous char from the label, improving the vertical centering.
70881view 15:01, 12 September 2013MaintBotReverted to version '13:01, 5 September 2013' by MaintBot
70859view 05:13, 12 September 2013NunoModified description
70755view 06:01, 5 September 2013EgonwAdded a ChEBI id for 'ACE inhibitor'.
67020view 02:55, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'ACE inhibitor drug pathway' added !
63137view 12:14, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
57086view 13:47, 20 January 2013EgonwAdded missing PubChem-compound data source.
48249view 23:21, 16 May 2012MaintBotUpdating PubChem xrefs
44938view 05:24, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'angiotensin signaling pathway' added !
41083view 16:20, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39013view 12:32, 27 September 2010AlexanderPico
39012view 12:31, 27 September 2010AlexanderPicoModified description
39011view 12:30, 27 September 2010AlexanderPicoadded detail and clarified interactions
38918view 14:05, 24 September 2010Khanspers
38365view 16:44, 2 September 2010KhanspersNew version uploaded
34805view 16:49, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
34804view 16:49, 20 January 2010KhanspersDeleted reference
34803view 16:43, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
34802view 16:41, 20 January 2010KhanspersDeleted reference
34801view 16:30, 20 January 2010KhanspersPeriodical save, work in progress
34800view 16:18, 20 January 2010KhanspersAdded citation
34799view 16:18, 20 January 2010KhanspersChanged comments
34798view 16:16, 20 January 2010KhanspersModified description
32148view 07:00, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30178view 13:31, 7 July 2009KhanspersAdded xref for angiotensinII
22578view 06:30, 14 November 2008Thomasremoved redundant organism name after title
21846view 04:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]] moved to [[Pathway:WP554]]: Moved to stable identifier
14510view 18:16, 22 May 2008AlexanderPicoConnected, grouped and fixed metabolites
13026view 04:07, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
11883view 11:19, 8 May 2008KhanspersChanged contact info
11445view 14:52, 29 March 2008JinwookPeriodical save, work in progress
10186view 05:20, 15 January 2008MaintBotadded literature
7872view 06:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:ACE-Inhibitor pathway PharmGKB]]: Renaming species
7561view 09:00, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7449view 05:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
6289view 15:17, 22 May 2007C.F.ThornUploaded from wpi.php

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACE InhibitorMetaboliteCHEBI:35457 (ChEBI)
ACEGeneProduct1636 (Entrez Gene)
ACE2GeneProduct59272 (Entrez Gene)
AGTGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR1GeneProduct185 (Entrez Gene)
AGTR2GeneProduct186 (Entrez Gene)
ATP6AP2GeneProduct10159 (Entrez Gene)
AldosteroneMetaboliteHMDB00037 (HMDB)
Ang 1-5MetaboliteC15852 (KEGG Compound)
Ang 1-7Metabolite110354 (Chemspider)
Ang 1-9MetaboliteC15851 (KEGG Compound)
Angiotensin IMetabolite3081372 (PubChem-compound)
Angiotensin IIMetaboliteHMDB01035 (HMDB)
BDKRB1GeneProduct623 (Entrez Gene)
BDKRB2GeneProduct624 (Entrez Gene)
BradykininMetaboliteHMDB04246 (HMDB)
CMA1GeneProduct1215 (Entrez Gene)
CTSGGeneProduct1511 (Entrez Gene)
CYP11B2GeneProduct1585 (Entrez Gene)
Ca++MetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
DeoxycorticosteroneMetaboliteHMDB00016 (HMDB)
KNG1GeneProduct3827 (Entrez Gene)
MAS1GeneProduct4142 (Entrez Gene)
NOS3GeneProduct4846 (Entrez Gene)
NR3C2GeneProduct4306 (Entrez Gene)
ProstacyclinMetabolite114805 (PubChem-compound)
RENGeneProduct5972 (Entrez Gene)
TGFB1GeneProduct7040 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>