Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction (Homo sapiens)

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Nucleus Dopamine Glutamate MAPK Signaling pathway Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction DRD4 DRD1 DRD2 Gs Ca++ CaM CAMK2A Strong depolarization Inhibitor-1 cAMP CREB1 Regulation of actin skeleton CAMK4 Gonadotropins gene expression & secretion ADCY1 Connexin 32 Regulation of Gap junction GnRH Signal Pathway Long term potentiation MEK1 MEK2 ERK1 ERK2 ACTB ACTG1 ACTG2 Actin ADCY1 ADCY8 GRIA1 GRIA2 GRIA3 GRIA4 AMPA receptor GRIN1 GRIN2A NMDA receptor GRM1 GRM5 mGluR PRKCA PRKCB PRKCG PRKACG PRKACA PRKACB Gi CAMK2A GRIN1 GRIN2A PPP1CA PPP1CB PPP1CC PRKACG PRKACA PRKACB RAF1 ARAF ARAF RAP1B RAP1A Name: Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction Organism: Homo sapiens


The pathway was modeled after Figure 2 in Li, et al. 2008 and is based on the common pathways identified in their study as well as protein interaction data. Specifically, glutamate and dopamine neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions trigger long-term potentiation, MAPK and GnRH signaling and gap junction regulation (green outlined pathway nodes). Related functional modules such as depolarization, gene expression and cytoskeleton regulation are also indicated (non-outlined pathway nodes). Among the several positive feedback loops identified in this pathway, the authors highlighted fast and slow ones in red and blue, respectively.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Li CY, Mao X, Wei L; ''Genes and (common) pathways underlying drug addiction.''; PLoS Comput Biol, 2008 PubMed


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95595view 07:20, 5 January 2018DeSlFound incorrect identifier for glutamate (was the same as dopamine).
89423view 15:39, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoadded missing interactions and red/blue highlighted cycles
89422view 15:36, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'alcohol dependence' added !
89421view 15:35, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'nicotine addiction pathway' added !
89420view 15:35, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'morphine addiction pathway' added !
89419view 15:33, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'cocaine addiction pathway' added !
89418view 15:33, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'amphetamine addiction pathway' added !
89417view 15:31, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoModified description
89416view 15:19, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicofinished adding xrefs and complexes
89415view 15:07, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoMore xrefs and complexes added
89414view 14:37, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoUpdated complexes and translation processes; additional layout changes
89413view 14:12, 10 September 2016AlexanderPicoupdated layout and labels; added Actin
89374view 23:24, 9 September 2016EgonwWidened label so that the full text is visible.
89373view 23:23, 9 September 2016EgonwConnected lines.
87531view 19:03, 24 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'drug pathway' added !
87530view 19:02, 24 July 2016AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'disease pathway' added !
87529view 19:02, 24 July 2016AlexanderPicoModified title
84387view 14:19, 18 February 2016KhanspersModified description
82194view 02:47, 13 September 2015EgonwFixed the Ensembl data source ("Ensembl Human" -> "Ensembl")
73720view 06:03, 19 February 2014Andraadded identifiers
73719view 16:13, 18 February 2014AndraModified description
73718view 16:08, 18 February 2014Andraadded identifiers
73717view 15:50, 18 February 2014Andraadded connections
73716view 15:48, 18 February 2014AndraNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ACTBGeneProductENSG00000075624 (Ensembl)
ACTG1GeneProductENSG00000184009 (Ensembl)
ACTG2GeneProductENSG00000163017 (Ensembl)
ADCY1GeneProductENSG00000164742 (Ensembl)
ADCY8GeneProductENSG00000155897 (Ensembl)
ARAFGeneProductENSG00000078061 (Ensembl)
CAMK2AGeneProductENSG00000070808 (Ensembl)
CAMK4GeneProductENSG00000152495 (Ensembl)
CREB1GeneProductENSG00000118260 (Ensembl)
Ca++Metabolite266 (Chemspider)
CaMGeneProductENSG00000198668 (Ensembl)
Connexin 32GeneProductENSG00000169562 (Ensembl)
DRD1GeneProductENSG00000184845 (Ensembl)
DRD2GeneProductENSG00000149295 (Ensembl)
DRD4GeneProductENSG00000069696 (Ensembl)
DopamineMetabolite661 (Chemspider)
ERK1GeneProductENSG00000102882 (Ensembl)
ERK2GeneProductENSG00000100030 (Ensembl)
GRIA1GeneProductENSG00000155511 (Ensembl)
GRIA2GeneProductENSG00000120251 (Ensembl)
GRIA3GeneProductENSG00000125675 (Ensembl)
GRIA4GeneProductENSG00000152578 (Ensembl)
GRIN1GeneProductENSG00000176884 (Ensembl)
GRIN2AGeneProductENSG00000183454 (Ensembl)
GRM1GeneProductENSG00000152822 (Ensembl)
GRM5GeneProductENSG00000168959 (Ensembl)
GiGeneProductENSG00000127955 (Ensembl)
GlutamateMetaboliteQ181136 (Wikidata)
GnRH Signal PathwayPathwayhsa04912 (KEGG Pathway)
Gonadotropins gene expression & secretionPathway
GsGeneProductENSG00000087460 (Ensembl)
Inhibitor-1GeneProductENSG00000135447 (Ensembl)
Long term potentiationPathwayhsa04720 (KEGG Pathway)
MAPK Signaling pathwayPathwayhsa04010 (KEGG Pathway)
MEK1GeneProductENSG00000169032 (Ensembl)
MEK2GeneProductENSG00000126934 (Ensembl)
Neuroactive ligand-receptor interactionPathway
PPP1CAGeneProductENSG00000172531 (Ensembl)
PPP1CBGeneProductENSG00000213639 (Ensembl)
PPP1CCGeneProductENSG00000186298 (Ensembl)
PRKACAGeneProductENSG00000072062 (Ensembl)
PRKACBGeneProductENSG00000142875 (Ensembl)
PRKACGGeneProductENSG00000165059 (Ensembl)
PRKCAGeneProductENSG00000154229 (Ensembl)
PRKCBGeneProductENSG00000166501 (Ensembl)
PRKCGGeneProductENSG00000126583 (Ensembl)
RAF1GeneProductENSG00000132155 (Ensembl)
RAP1AGeneProductENSG00000116473 (Ensembl)
RAP1BGeneProductENSG00000127314 (Ensembl)
Regulation of Gap junctionPathway
Regulation of actin skeletonPathwayhsa04810 (KEGG Pathway)
Strong depolarizationPathway
cAMP Metabolite5851 (Chemspider)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>