Nanoparticle triggered regulated necrosis (Homo sapiens)

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Iron Mitochondria NECROSOME Lipid peroxidation Lowered pH Lysosome DNA damage Iron TNFR1 Necroptosis ROS TRIF Arachidonic acid PAMPs SMases Calpains TNF Ge NP ATP Calcium Ceramide Nec-1 PARP1 lipoxygenase cPLA2 JNK CASP8 TRADD RIPK1 FADD RIPK3 Glutaminolysis Glycogenolysis Glycolysis Ferritin Labile iron pool Name: Nanoparticle triggered regulated necrosis Organism: Homo sapiens


Programmed cell death: regulated necrosis. During regulated necrosis, different stimuli are recognized or sensed by specific receptors on the cell surface or inside cells. The activation of the necrosome stimulates different signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial hyperpolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cellular disintegration. A recent study revealed that germanium nanoparticles trigger necrostatin-1-inhibitable cell death with a reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Andón FT, Fadeel B; ''Programmed Cell Death: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials.''; Acc Chem Res, 2012 PubMed
  2. Ma YH, Huang CP, Tsai JS, Shen MY, Li YK, Lin LY; ''Water-soluble germanium nanoparticles cause necrotic cell death and the damage can be attenuated by blocking the transduction of necrotic signaling pathway.''; Toxicol Lett, 2011 PubMed


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97539view 07:33, 24 May 2018EgonwFixed a character encoding issue.
97519view 06:52, 24 May 2018Timverbruggenincrease mappings
97510view 06:39, 24 May 2018Timverbruggenincreased mapping
92316view 01:50, 20 May 2017EgonwOntology Term : 'nanomaterial response pathway' added !
86006view 17:51, 23 June 2016Khansperschanged look of pathway nodes
86000view 17:30, 23 June 2016KhanspersConnected interactions, updated xrefs, assigned node types
85999view 17:22, 23 June 2016Khanspersconnected lines, changed gene nodes to pathway nodes where appropriate
85026view 07:21, 6 April 2016Mkutmonremove special characters and add graphical annotations instead
81068view 11:23, 19 July 2015EgonwTyped ceramide as metabolite.
81067view 11:22, 19 July 2015EgonwUse a ChEBI identifier instead of a Wikipedia one.
77901view 07:47, 28 October 2014Bart SmeetsModified description
77900view 07:47, 28 October 2014Bart SmeetsModified description
77667view 05:01, 5 October 2014EgonwReplaced 'Uniprot-SwissProt' by 'Uniprot-TrEMBL'.
74182view 02:32, 3 April 2014Bart SmeetsAdded wiki entries
74143view 03:31, 1 April 2014Bart SmeetsExpanded description of nanoparticles in pathway, added corresponding literature references.
73826view 08:05, 25 February 2014Bart SmeetsFixed some wikipedia entries
73825view 08:01, 25 February 2014Bart SmeetsAdded a few GeneIDs
71447view 12:13, 17 October 2013MaintBotUpdated data sources
70991view 13:50, 21 September 2013EgonwAdded a few identifiers.
68057view 06:10, 29 June 2013EgonwCompleted the pathway as given in the figure.
68054view 06:04, 29 June 2013EgonwPeriodical save, work in progress
66148view 01:19, 15 June 2013EgonwAdded the literature ref again.
65706view 05:26, 11 June 2013EgonwAdded the caspase 8 identifier, and widened the Necroptosis box.
65603view 09:18, 10 June 2013EgonwMore content of the pathway.
65457view 03:27, 8 June 2013EgonwOntology Term : 'necrosis pathway' added !
65447view 01:02, 8 June 2013EgonwNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ATPMetaboliteHMDB01532 (HMDB)
Arachidonic acidMetaboliteHMDB01043 (HMDB)
CASP8GeneProductENSG00000064012 (Ensembl)
CalciumMetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
CeramideMetaboliteCHEBI:17761 (ChEBI)
FADDGeneProductENSG00000168040 (Ensembl)
FerritinProteinP02792 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
GlutaminolysisPathwayGlutaminolysis (Wikipedia)
GlycogenolysisPathwayGlycogenolysis (WikiPathways)
GlycolysisPathwayGlycolysis (WikiPathways)
IronMetaboliteHMDB00692 (HMDB)
JNKGeneProductENSG00000107643 (Ensembl)
Labile iron poolMetabolite
Nec-1Metabolite2828334 (PubChem-compound)
PARP1GeneProductENSG00000143799 (Ensembl)
RIPK1GeneProductENSG00000137275 (Ensembl)
RIPK3GeneProductENSG00000129465 (Ensembl)
ROSMetaboliteCHEBI:26523 (ChEBI)
SMasesSphingomyelinase (Wikipedia)
TLRsProteinToll-like_receptor (Ensembl)
TNFR1GeneProductENSG00000067182 (Ensembl)
TNFProteinTNF (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TRADDGeneProductENSG00000102871 (Ensembl)
TRIFGeneProductENSG00000127666 (Ensembl)
cPLA2GeneProductENSG00000116711 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>