Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death (Homo sapiens)

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Ambra1 Beclin1 Atg14L p150 PI3KCIII Phagophore Autophagosome formation Autophagosome CELL SURVIVAL IR Insulin PI3k/AKT AMPK mTORC1 PI3KCIII BCL-2 3-MA LC3-II ATG10 Carbon nanotube TCS-1 TCS-2 ATG9 VMP1 ULK1 ULK2 UVRAG Beclin1 Bif1 p150 PI3KCIII LC3-I ATG3 ATG4 ATG7 ATG12 ATG5 ATG16L Au NP Lysosome impairment Lysosome Autophagolysosome AUTOPHAGIC CELL DEATH PAMAM FeO NP Name: Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death Organism: Homo sapiens


Programmed cell death: autophagic cell death. Autophagy (self-eating) is a survival mechanism deployed by cells to cope with conditions of nutrient deprivation. However, unrestrained autophagy can result in genetically programmed cell death. Carbon nanotubes, PAMAMs, and iron oxide nanoparticles were reported to trigger autophagic cell death through the perturbation of the mTOR pathway, while gold nanoparticles may induce autophagy blockade through lysosomal impairment.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Li C, Liu H, Sun Y, Wang H, Guo F, Rao S, Deng J, Zhang Y, Miao Y, Guo C, Meng J, Chen X, Li L, Li D, Xu H, Li B, Jiang C; ''PAMAM nanoparticles promote acute lung injury by inducing autophagic cell death through the Akt-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway.''; J Mol Cell Biol, 2009 PubMed
  2. Liu HL, Zhang YL, Yang N, Zhang YX, Liu XQ, Li CG, Zhao Y, Wang YG, Zhang GG, Yang P, Guo F, Sun Y, Jiang CY; ''A functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube-induced autophagic cell death in human lung cells through Akt-TSC2-mTOR signaling.''; Cell Death Dis, 2011 PubMed
  3. Andón FT, Fadeel B; ''Programmed Cell Death: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials.''; Acc Chem Res, 2012 PubMed
  4. Khan MI, Mohammad A, Patil G, Naqvi SA, Chauhan LK, Ahmad I; ''Induction of ROS, mitochondrial damage and autophagy in lung epithelial cancer cells by iron oxide nanoparticles.''; Biomaterials, 2012 PubMed
  5. Ma X, Wu Y, Jin S, Tian Y, Zhang X, Zhao Y, Yu L, Liang XJ; ''Gold nanoparticles induce autophagosome accumulation through size-dependent nanoparticle uptake and lysosome impairment.''; ACS Nano, 2011 PubMed


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92315view 01:49, 20 May 2017EgonwOntology Term : 'nanomaterial response pathway' added !
89322view 15:07, 1 September 2016EgonwFixed weird chars in references.
89066view 01:12, 19 August 2016FehrhartConverted interaction to graphical line
85994view 02:53, 23 June 2016FehrhartConnected some lines
79822view 00:41, 17 April 2015EgonwMarked a metabolite as @Type Metabolite.
78509view 03:29, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
77899view 07:40, 28 October 2014Bart SmeetsModified description
77668view 05:02, 5 October 2014EgonwReplaced 'Uniprot-SwissProt' by 'Uniprot-TrEMBL'.
74142view 03:19, 1 April 2014Bart SmeetsExpanded description of nanoparticles in pathway, added corresponding literature references.
73823view 07:48, 25 February 2014Bart SmeetsAdded a few GeneIDs
70990view 23:25, 19 September 2013EgonwAnother NPO term.
70989view 23:24, 19 September 2013Egonw
70984view 14:15, 19 September 2013EgonwMore gene IDs.
70983view 13:49, 19 September 2013EgonwAdded a few gene IDs.
65252view 03:07, 6 June 2013EgonwAdded the literature reference. Again.
65251view 03:00, 6 June 2013EgonwOK, the last corner.
65154view 08:25, 5 June 2013EgonwAnother corner of the pathway.
64853view 23:57, 3 June 2013EgonwAdded the literature reference.
64735view 04:56, 2 June 2013EgonwOntology Term : 'autophagy pathway' added !
64734view 04:55, 2 June 2013EgonwExtended the pathway to match more content of the figure in the cited paper.
64677view 23:42, 31 May 2013AndraOntology Term : 'cell death pathway' added !
64676view 23:39, 31 May 2013AndraModified categories
64624view 13:47, 30 May 2013EgonwAdded the literature reference.
64623view 13:45, 30 May 2013EgonwNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3-MAMetabolite1673 (PubChem-compound)
ATG10GeneProductENSG00000152348 (Ensembl)
ATG12GeneProductENSG00000145782 (Ensembl)
ATG16LGeneProductENSG00000085978 (Ensembl)
ATG3GeneProductENSG00000144848 (Ensembl)
ATG4GeneProductENSG00000101844 (Ensembl)
ATG5GeneProductENSG00000057663 (Ensembl)
ATG7GeneProductENSG00000197548 (Ensembl)
ATG9GeneProductENSG00000181652 (Ensembl)
Ambra1GeneProductENSG00000110497 (Ensembl)
Atg14LGeneProductENSG00000126775 (Ensembl)
Au NPNPO_401 (NanoParticle Ontology)
BCL-2GeneProductENSG00000171791 (Ensembl)
Beclin1 GeneProductENSG00000126581 (Ensembl)
Bif1GeneProductENSG00000097033 (Ensembl)
Carbon nanotubeNPO_606 (NanoParticle Ontology)
FeO NPNPO_273 (NanoParticle Ontology)
IR GeneProductENSG00000171105 (Ensembl)
InsulinProteinP01308 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
LC3-IGeneProductENSG00000101460 (Ensembl)
PAMAMNPO_965 (NanoParticle Ontology)
TCS-1GeneProductENSG00000165699 (Ensembl)
TCS-2GeneProductENSG00000103197 (Ensembl)
ULK1GeneProductENSG00000177169 (Ensembl)
ULK2GeneProductENSG00000083290 (Ensembl)
UVRAGGeneProductENSG00000198382 (Ensembl)
VMP1GeneProductENSG00000062716 (Ensembl)
p150 GeneProductENSG00000167670 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>