Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production (Homo sapiens)

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Iodination of tyrosine Hypothalamus mono- and di-iodotyrosines Spontaneous crosslinking Triiodothyronine (T3) TSH 127 Iodide 131 Iodide TRH TSHR SLC5A5 Thyruglobulin (Tg) Thyroidperoxidase L-Tyrosine Thyroxine (T4) Anterior pituitary Thyroid 131 Iodide 127 Iodide Name: Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production Organism: Homo sapiens


Thyroxine hormone is produced in the thyroid gland from tyrosine and iodine. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary gland, which affects the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Iodine is captured by a hydrogen peroxide trap procuced by thyroid peroxidase and added to the 3' and 5' postitions of tyrosine. This can either be free tyrosine or a tyrosine residue in thyroglobuline. After the multiple iodination steps this produces T3 and T4. The production of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4),tri-iodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 (rT3) is dependent on the organification of iodine into thyroglobulin (Tg), the major protein product of the thyroid (2). This involves thyroid peroxidase catalyzed iodination of tyrosine residues in Tg to form mono- and di-iodotyrosines and their subsequent crosslinking to form the iodothyronines T3 and T4.

Iodine 131 is an important radioactive fallout product. It was released in the atmosphere after nuclear tests and after nuclear incidents like at Tchernobyl and Fukushima. Since the iodine is concentrated in the thyroid glant as a substrate for the process described here non-radioactive iodine 127 is given as competitor to people exposed.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE, Mabuchi K, Modan B, Pottern LM, Schneider AB, Tucker MA, Boice JD Jr; ''Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies.''; Radiat Res, 1995 PubMed
  2. Van Herle, A.J ., G. Vassart, J.E . Dumont; ''Control of thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion''; N. Engl. J. Med. 301:239, 1979 PubMed


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96314view 02:04, 8 March 2018Mkutmonremoved outdated pathway attributes
96012view 07:53, 15 February 2018EgonwI need to dive into the exact mechanism... making it an plain arrow for now.
85189view 08:40, 23 April 2016EgonwReplaced a mim-conversion with Arrow.
85188view 08:38, 23 April 2016EgonwRemoved a "Label" label.
70955view 14:25, 17 September 2013MaintBotadded xref for TG
70671view 08:56, 24 August 2013EgonwAdded Pubchem-compound CIDs for the two 137I ions.
70030view 18:57, 11 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
68909view 10:30, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
54373view 08:18, 28 November 2012Mkutmonadded some labels and ioniation error
54372view 08:10, 28 November 2012EveloModified description
54371view 08:07, 28 November 2012EveloModified description
54364view 07:51, 28 November 2012Mkutmonupdated MIM interactions
44968view 06:21, 6 October 2011Mkutmonconnected lines
44471view 13:38, 14 September 2011MaintBotAdded category
42772view 10:05, 29 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42771view 09:40, 29 April 2011LribeiroModified description
42770view 08:39, 29 April 2011LribeiroModified description
42756view 11:43, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42755view 11:32, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42754view 11:22, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42742view 12:56, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42741view 12:46, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42740view 12:36, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42413view 02:03, 23 March 2011EveloConnected some hormone interaction
42299view 13:50, 14 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42298view 13:04, 14 March 2011EveloAdded iodide symporter
42297view 12:54, 14 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42296view 12:24, 14 March 2011EveloOntology Term : 'thyroid hormone signaling pathway' added !
42295view 12:22, 14 March 2011EveloOntology Term : 'thyroid gland disease' added !
42287view 06:15, 14 March 2011EveloAdded organs
42286view 05:43, 14 March 2011MkutmonCorrection of the name
42281view 15:04, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42280view 15:00, 13 March 2011EveloSpecify description
42279view 14:54, 13 March 2011EveloAdded TPO
42278view 14:44, 13 March 2011EveloAdded Thyroglobulin
42277view 14:26, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42276view 14:17, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42275view 14:11, 13 March 2011EveloSpecify description
42274view 14:01, 13 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42273view 13:49, 13 March 2011EveloAdde tyrosine
42272view 13:36, 13 March 2011EveloAdded T3 (from ChemSpider!)
42271view 13:31, 13 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42270view 13:26, 13 March 2011Evelofirst edit added thyroxine
42269view 11:21, 13 March 2011AndraCreated stub
42268view 11:14, 13 March 2011AndraNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
127 IodideMetaboliteHMDB12238 (HMDB)
131 IodideMetabolite167195 (PubChem-compound)
L-TyrosineMetaboliteHMDB00158 (HMDB)
SLC5A5GeneProduct6528 (Entrez Gene)
TRHGeneProduct7200 (Entrez Gene)
TSHGeneProduct1081 (Entrez Gene)
TSHRGeneProduct7253 (Entrez Gene)
Thyroidperoxidase GeneProduct7173 (Entrez Gene)
Thyroxine (T4)MetaboliteHMDB00248 (HMDB)
Thyruglobulin (Tg)GeneProduct7038 (Entrez Gene)
Triiodothyronine (T3)Metabolite5707 (Chemspider)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>