Cell Cycle (Homo sapiens)

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S-phase proteins, Cyclin E Origin Recognition Complex ORC1 ORC2 ORC3 ORC4 ORC5 ORC6 G1 DNA damage checkpoint S R-point (start) Cohesin Growth Factor Securin +p Growth Factor withdrawal M G2 Separin CDC7 DBF4A CDK7 CCNH PLK1 CDKN2A CDKN2B CDKN2C CDKN2D MAD2L2 MAD1L1 BUB3 PCNA P CDK2 CCNA1 CCNA2 GSK3B ESPL1 MCM2 MCM3 MCM4 MCM5 MCM6 MCM7 P P P P P53 P CDC25B CDC25C CC14B CC14A CCNA2 P P P CDK1 CCNA1 RB1 HDAC1 HDAC2 P P RBL2 P P P RBL1 CDC45 ATM ATR TGFB1 TGFB2 TGFB3 PTTG1 PTTG2 P P P CHK2 P P CHK1 PKMYT1 MAPK Signaling Pathway CDC20 ANAPC10 ANAPC13 ANAPC2 ANAPC4 ANAPC5 ANAPC7 ANAPC11 ANAPC1 CDC23 CDC16 CDC27 SMAD4 SMAD3 SMAD2 CCNE1 CCNE2 P CDK2 Apoptosis ABL1 RB1 SFN P FZR1 CDC20 ANAPC10 ANAPC13 ANAPC2 ANAPC4 ANAPC5 ANAPC7 ANAPC11 ANAPC1 CDC23 CDC16 CDC27 SKP1 SKP2 CUL1 RBX1 YWHAB YWHAE YWHAH YWHAQ YWHAZ YWHAG GADD45A CDK6 P CCND2 CDK4 P CCND3 P CCND1 P P P CDC6 EP300 P CDKN1C CDKN1A P CDKN1B P RB1 CCNB3 CCNB2 CCNB1 P P P CDK1 WEE1 WEE2 DNA Biosynthesis PRKDC ORC1 ORC2 ORC3 ORC4 ORC5 ORC6 SMC3 SMC1B SMC1A STAG1 STAG2 RAD21 MDM2 Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteolysis BUB1 RBL1 E2F4 E2F5 TFDP1 TFDP2 CDKN2A MYC ZBTB17 E2F1 E2F2 TFDP1 E2F3 TFDP2 E2F4 E2F5 TFDP1 TFDP2 GADD45B GADD45G P CDC25A TTK P MD1L1 SKP1 SKP2 CUL1 RBX1 MCM2 MCM3 MCM4 MCM5 MCM6 MCM7 Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex Name: Cell Cycle Last Modified: 2/22/2013 Organism: Homo sapiens


The cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a cell, including the detection and repair of genetic damage as well as the prevention of uncontrolled cell division. Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the cell cycle.

Sources: Wikipedia:Cell cycle, KEGG

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Canman CE, Lim DS, Cimprich KA, Taya Y, Tamai K, Sakaguchi K, Appella E, Kastan MB, Siliciano JD; ''Activation of the ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation of p53.''; Science, 1998 PubMed


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97174view 10:12, 3 May 2018AlexanderPicochanged complex to paralog group
96994view 14:13, 25 April 2018Khanspersadded phosphosites
96993view 13:19, 25 April 2018Khanspersinteractions and phosphosites
96985view 22:19, 24 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul: updated to Ensembl, added phoshposites, complexes etc
96984view 18:20, 24 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul in progress
96983view 16:29, 24 April 2018Khanspersoverhaul in progress
93002view 11:31, 21 July 2017KhanspersReverted to version '10:59, 16 September 2016' by Khanspers
92878view 01:44, 13 July 2017JosipMadunicCell Cycle
89516view 03:59, 16 September 2016Mkutmonontology tag fix
89470view 06:39, 15 September 2016Mkutmonremove space from ontology term id
70629view 17:22, 19 August 2013MaintBotUpdated xrefs by Anatoly Urisman
69900view 12:28, 11 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
67101view 03:06, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'cell cycle pathway, mitotic' added !
63158view 13:18, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating gpml version
59175view 11:43, 22 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
45137view 17:58, 6 October 2011AlexanderPico
45136view 17:57, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45135view 17:56, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45134view 17:56, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45133view 17:55, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoModified description
45089view 14:00, 6 October 2011AlexanderPico
45087view 13:58, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicodb refs
45084view 13:51, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicofixed pathway refs
45079view 13:41, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded groups
45075view 13:31, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded groups and db refs
45071view 13:14, 6 October 2011AlexanderPicoadded db ref and group
41134view 16:38, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35361view 02:11, 12 February 2010MartijnVanIerselModified description
34663view 05:07, 8 January 2010ThomasReverted color change of gene boxes by BadrulYahaya (no meaning for the color provided)
32357view 06:40, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
31988view 06:13, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30295view 08:33, 28 July 2009BadrulYahayaPeriodical save, work in progress
28966view 14:11, 18 March 2009Dmitriev200Added reference to ATM-P53 link
21055view 04:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Cell cycle KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:WP179]]: Moved to stable identifier
18932view 13:34, 11 September 2008IlianaSachReverted to version '13:07, 22 May 2008' by IlianaSach
18929view 13:33, 11 September 2008IlianaSachTest, will revert!
14322view 06:07, 22 May 2008SusanGrouping and connecting
14306view 05:36, 22 May 2008SusanAdded connections
12969view 03:57, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
7948view 06:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:Cell cycle KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Cell cycle KEGG]]: Renaming species
7599view 09:03, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7207view 05:33, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19397view 15:17, 22 May 2007BruceConklingpml file for [[Human:Cell_cycle_KEGG]]
6301view 15:17, 22 May 2007Nsalomonisgpml file for [[Human:Cell_cycle_KEGG]]

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ABL1GeneProductENSG00000097007 (Ensembl)ABL1; v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 [EC:
ANAPC10GeneProductENSG00000164162 (Ensembl)
ANAPC11GeneProductENSG00000141552 (Ensembl)
ANAPC13GeneProductENSG00000129055 (Ensembl)
ANAPC1GeneProductENSG00000153107 (Ensembl)
ANAPC2GeneProductENSG00000176248 (Ensembl)
ANAPC4GeneProductENSG00000053900 (Ensembl)
ANAPC5GeneProductENSG00000089053 (Ensembl)
ANAPC7GeneProductENSG00000196510 (Ensembl)
ATMGeneProductENSG00000149311 (Ensembl)ATM; ataxia telangiectasia mutated (includes complementation groups A C and D) [EC:]
ATRGeneProductENSG00000175054 (Ensembl)ATR; ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related
ApoptosisPathwayWP254 (WikiPathways)
BUB1GeneProductENSG00000169679 (Ensembl)BUB1; BUB1 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog (yeast) [EC:2.7.1.-]
BUB3GeneProductENSG00000154473 (Ensembl)MAD2L1; MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast)
CC14AGeneProductENSG00000079335 (Ensembl)CDC14A; CDC14 cell division cycle 14 homolog A (S. cerevisiae
CC14BGeneProductENSG00000081377 (Ensembl)CDC14B; CDC14 cell division cycle 14 homolog B (S. cerevisiae
CCNA1GeneProductENSG00000133101 (Ensembl)CCNA1; cyclin A1
CCNA2GeneProductENSG00000145386 (Ensembl)CCNA2; cyclin A2
CCNB1GeneProductENSG00000134057 (Ensembl)CCNB1; cyclin B1
CCNB2GeneProductENSG00000157456 (Ensembl)CCNB2; cyclin B2
CCNB3GeneProductENSG00000147082 (Ensembl)CCNB3; cyclin B
CCND1GeneProductENSG00000110092 (Ensembl)CCND3; cyclin D3
CCND2GeneProductENSG00000118971 (Ensembl)CCND2; cyclin D2
CCND3GeneProductENSG00000112576 (Ensembl)CCND3; cyclin D3
CCNE1GeneProductENSG00000105173 (Ensembl)CCNE1; cyclin E
CCNE2GeneProductENSG00000175305 (Ensembl)CCNE2; cyclin E
CCNHGeneProductENSG00000134480 (Ensembl)CCNH; cyclin H
CDC16GeneProductENSG00000130177 (Ensembl)
CDC20GeneProduct991 (Entrez Gene)CDC20; CDC20 cell division cycle 20 homolog (S. cerevisiae
CDC23GeneProductENSG00000094880 (Ensembl)
CDC25AGeneProductENSG00000164045 (Ensembl)PRKDC; protein kinase DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide [EC:]
CDC25BGeneProductENSG00000101224 (Ensembl)CDC25C; cell division cycle 25C [EC:]
CDC25CGeneProductENSG00000158402 (Ensembl)CDC25B; cell division cycle 25B [EC:]
CDC27GeneProductENSG00000004897 (Ensembl)
CDC45GeneProductENSG00000093009 (Ensembl)CDC45L; CDC45 cell division cycle 45-like (S. cerevisiae)
CDC6GeneProductENSG00000094804 (Ensembl)CDC6; CDC6 cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae
CDC7GeneProductENSG00000097046 (Ensembl)CDC7L1; CDC7 cell division cycle 7-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK1GeneProductENSG00000170312 (Ensembl)CDC2; cell division cycle 2 G1 to S and G2 to M [EC:2.7.1.-
CDK2GeneProductENSG00000123374 (Ensembl)CDK2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK4GeneProductENSG00000135446 (Ensembl)CDK4; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK6GeneProductENSG00000105810 (Ensembl)CDK6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDK7GeneProductENSG00000134058 (Ensembl)CDK2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.-]
CDKN1AGeneProductENSG00000124762 (Ensembl)
CDKN1BGeneProductENSG00000111276 (Ensembl)CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21 Cip1)
CDKN1CGeneProductENSG00000129757 (Ensembl)CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21 Cip1)
CDKN2AGeneProductENSG00000147889 (Ensembl)
CDKN2BGeneProductENSG00000147883 (Ensembl)
CDKN2CGeneProductENSG00000123080 (Ensembl)
CDKN2DGeneProductENSG00000129355 (Ensembl)
CHK1GeneProduct1111 (Entrez Gene)CHEK1; CHK1 checkpoint homolog (S. pombe) [EC:2.7.1.-]
CHK2GeneProduct11200 (Entrez Gene)CHEK2; CHK2 checkpoint homolog (S. pombe) [EC:2.7.1.-]
CUL1GeneProductENSG00000055130 (Ensembl)
DBF4AGeneProductENSG00000006634 (Ensembl)ASK; activator of S phase kinas
DNA BiosynthesisPathway
E2F1GeneProductENSG00000101412 (Ensembl)E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1
E2F2GeneProductENSG00000007968 (Ensembl)E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2
E2F3GeneProductENSG00000112242 (Ensembl)E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3
E2F4GeneProductENSG00000205250 (Ensembl)E2F4; E2F transcription factor 4 p107/p130-binding
E2F5GeneProductENSG00000133740 (Ensembl)E2F5; E2F transcription factor 5 p130-binding
EP300GeneProductENSG00000100393 (Ensembl)EP300; E1A binding protein p300
ESPL1GeneProductENSG00000135476 (Ensembl)ESPL1; extra spindle poles like 1 (S. cerevisiae
FZR1GeneProductENSG00000105325 (Ensembl)
GADD45AGeneProductENSG00000116717 (Ensembl)
GADD45BGeneProductENSG00000099860 (Ensembl)
GADD45GGeneProductENSG00000130222 (Ensembl)
GSK3BGeneProductENSG00000082701 (Ensembl)GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:]
HDAC1GeneProductENSG00000116478 (Ensembl)HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1
HDAC2GeneProductENSG00000196591 (Ensembl)HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2
MAD1L1GeneProductENSG00000002822 (Ensembl)MAD1L1; MAD1 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast
MAD2L2GeneProductENSG00000116670 (Ensembl)MAD2L2; MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 2 (yeast)
MAPK Signaling PathwayPathwayWP382 (WikiPathways)
MCM2GeneProductENSG00000073111 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MCM3GeneProductENSG00000112118 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MCM4GeneProductENSG00000104738 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MCM5GeneProductENSG00000100297 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MCM6GeneProductENSG00000076003 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MCM7GeneProductENSG00000166508 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
MD1L1GeneProductENSG00000002822 (Ensembl)MAD1L1; MAD1 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast
MDM2GeneProductENSG00000135679 (Ensembl)MDM2; Mdm2 transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2 p53 binding protein (mouse)
MYCGeneProductENSG00000136997 (Ensembl)
ORC1GeneProductENSG00000085840 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
ORC2GeneProductENSG00000115942 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
ORC3GeneProductENSG00000135336 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
ORC4GeneProductENSG00000115947 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
ORC5GeneProductENSG00000164815 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
ORC6GeneProductENSG00000091651 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
P53GeneProductENSG00000141510 (Ensembl)
PCNAGeneProductENSG00000132646 (Ensembl)PCNA; proliferating cell nuclear antigen
PKMYT1GeneProductENSG00000127564 (Ensembl)PKMYT1; membrane-associated tyrosine- and threonine-specific cdc2-inhibitory kinas
PLK1GeneProductENSG00000166851 (Ensembl)PLK; polo-like kinase (Drosophila) [EC:2.7.1.-]
PRKDCGeneProductENSG00000253729 (Ensembl)PRKDC; protein kinase DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide [EC:]
PTTG1GeneProductENSG00000164611 (Ensembl)PTTG1; pituitary tumor-transforming
PTTG2GeneProductENSG00000250254 (Ensembl)PTTG2; pituitary tumor-transforming
RAD21GeneProductENSG00000164754 (Ensembl)ESPL1; extra spindle poles like 1 (S. cerevisiae
RB1GeneProductENSG00000139687 (Ensembl)
RBL1GeneProductENSG00000080839 (Ensembl)
RBL2GeneProductENSG00000103479 (Ensembl)RB1; retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma)
RBX1GeneProductENSG00000100387 (Ensembl)
SFNGeneProductENSG00000175793 (Ensembl)YWHAG; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma polypeptid
SKP1GeneProductENSG00000113558 (Ensembl)
SKP2GeneProductENSG00000105810 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
SKP2GeneProductENSG00000145604 (Ensembl)SKP2; S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45
SMAD2GeneProductENSG00000175387 (Ensembl)MADH3; MAD mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Drosophila)
SMAD3GeneProductENSG00000166949 (Ensembl)MADH3; MAD mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Drosophila)
SMAD4GeneProductENSG00000141646 (Ensembl)MADH4; MAD mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Drosophila)
SMC1AGeneProductENSG00000072501 (Ensembl)SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
SMC1BGeneProductENSG00000077935 (Ensembl)SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
SMC3GeneProductENSG00000108055 (Ensembl)SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
STAG1GeneProductENSG00000118007 (Ensembl)SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
STAG2GeneProductENSG00000101972 (Ensembl)SMC1L1; SMC1 structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (yeast
TFDP1GeneProductENSG00000198176 (Ensembl)TFDP1; transcription factor Dp-1
TFDP2GeneProductENSG00000114126 (Ensembl)TFDP1; transcription factor Dp-1
TGFB1GeneProductENSG00000105329 (Ensembl)
TGFB2GeneProductENSG00000092969 (Ensembl)
TGFB3GeneProductENSG00000119699 (Ensembl)
TTKGeneProductENSG00000112742 (Ensembl)BUB1B; BUB1 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (yeast) [EC:2.7.1.-]
Ubiquitin-Mediated ProteolysisPathwayWP183 (WikiPathways)
WEE1GeneProductENSG00000166483 (Ensembl)WEE1; WEE1+ homolog (S. pombe) [EC:]
WEE2GeneProductENSG00000214102 (Ensembl)WEE1; WEE1+ homolog (S. pombe) [EC:]
YWHABGeneProduct7529 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAEGeneProduct7531 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAGGeneProduct7532 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAHGeneProduct7533 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAQGeneProduct10971 (Entrez Gene)
YWHAZGeneProduct7534 (Entrez Gene)
ZBTB17GeneProductENSG00000116809 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>