Angiogenesis (Homo sapiens)

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Target Genes Target Genes HRE EPC mobilization Basement membrane degradation Vascular budding through EPC recruition Migration Stabilization of newly formed vessels Cell growth and division Attraction of pericytes and SMCs Proliferation Upregulation proteases Cel replication Capillary tubule formation Proliferation and differentiation of ECs, SMCs and fibroblasts Hypoxia DNA Nucleus Extracellular Vessel Stabilization Survival Vascular Permeability Cytoplasm MAPK1 sTIE2 NOS FGF2 Ang 1 TIMP3 PDGFRA HIF1A TIMP2 PDGFB AKT1 VEGFA PI3K SMAD1 PLCG1 p38 MAPK FAK SRC TIE2 FLT1 VEGFR2 FGFR2 ARNT CBP HIF1A MMP9 MMP2 Ang 1 PDGFB VEGFA MMP2 MMP9 FGF2 Name: Angiogenesis License: CC BY 2.0 Organism: Homo sapiens


This pathway is a concise and simplified version of the basic proteins involved in angiogenesis. The proces is regulated by hyopoxia, which results in the transcription of eg. VEGF1, FGF2, PDGFbeta, MMP9, MMP2 and Ang1. These proteins bind to their receptors and by doing this they initiate different pathways that result in vessel formation.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Millauer B, Wizigmann-Voos S, Schnâˆڑأ‰آ¬آ؛rch H, Martinez R, Mâˆڑأ‰آ¬âˆڈller NP, Risau W, Ullrich A; ''High affinity VEGF binding and developmental expression suggest Flk-1 as a major regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.''; Cell, 1993 PubMed
  2. Kutryk MJ, Stewart DJ; ''Angiogenesis of the heart.''; Microsc Res Tech, 2003 PubMed
  3. Madeddu P; ''Therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis for tissue regeneration.''; Exp Physiol, 2005 PubMed
  4. Renault MA, Losordo DW; ''The matrix revolutions: matrix metalloproteinase, vasculogenesis, and ischemic tissue repair.''; Circ Res, 2007 PubMed
  5. Novotny NM, Lahm T, Markel TA, Crisostomo PR, Wang M, Wang Y, Tan J, Meldrum DR; ''Angiopoietin-1 in the treatment of ischemia and sepsis.''; Shock, 2009 PubMed
  6. ''3: Angiogenesis Pathway'';, 2008
  7. Burbridge MF, Cogâˆڑأ‰آ¬آ© F, Galizzi JP, Boutin JA, West DC, Tucker GC; ''The role of the matrix metalloproteinases during in vitro vessel formation.''; Angiogenesis, 2002 PubMed
  8. Bergers G, Brekken R, McMahon G, Vu TH, Itoh T, Tamaki K, Tanzawa K, Thorpe P, Itohara S, Werb Z, Hanahan D; ''Matrix metalloproteinase-9 triggers the angiogenic switch during carcinogenesis.''; Nat Cell Biol, 2000 PubMed
  9. Li J, Wei Y, Liu K, Yuan C, Tang Y, Quan Q, Chen P, Wang W, Hu H, Yang L; ''Synergistic effects of FGF-2 and PDGF-BB on angiogenesis and muscle regeneration in rabbit hindlimb ischemia model.''; Microvasc Res, 2010 PubMed
  10.; ''Angiogenesis Pathway'';, 2008
  11. Tomanek RJ, Sandra A, Zheng W, Brock T, Bjercke RJ, Holifield JS; ''Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor differentially modulate early postnatal coronary angiogenesis.''; Circ Res, 2001 PubMed
  12. Koblizek TI, Weiss C, Yancopoulos GD, Deutsch U, Risau W; ''Angiopoietin-1 induces sprouting angiogenesis in vitro.''; Curr Biol, 1998 PubMed
  13. Tomanek RJ, Zheng W, Yue X; ''Growth factor activation in myocardial vascularization: therapeutic implications.''; Mol Cell Biochem, 2004 PubMed
  14. Hellberg C, Ostman A, Heldin CH; ''PDGF and vessel maturation.''; Recent Results Cancer Res, 2010 PubMed
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95042view 18:52, 5 November 2017AlexanderPicoannotated cellular compartments
88983view 02:51, 18 August 2016MirellaKalafatiOntology Term : 'regulatory pathway' added !
79949view 03:53, 28 April 2015ZariChanged Drosophila ID to human ID for p38 MAPK
78807view 02:16, 31 January 2015EgonwAccidental commit; reverting, just in case.
78806view 02:15, 31 January 2015EgonwWP254
78805view 02:14, 31 January 2015EgonwConnected a dot (by adding an invisible box).
75222view 15:04, 9 May 2014Khanspersfixed connections and groups
74474view 21:33, 24 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71713view 13:05, 17 October 2013MaintBotUpdated UniProt/TrEMBL data source
63161view 13:19, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
59198view 12:08, 22 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl data source
58504view 11:59, 14 February 2013MaintBotModified description
44952view 05:37, 6 October 2011MartijnVanIerselOntology Term : 'signaling pathway pertinent to development' added !
42601view 13:32, 10 April 2011AlexanderPicoupdated HIF1B to ARNT
42554view 07:01, 4 April 2011ToxlabProvided entrez Gene ID for FGFR2
42553view 06:43, 4 April 2011ToxlabAdded data base ref to FGF2
41185view 16:43, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38974view 11:27, 25 September 2010AlexanderPicofixed groups, labels and lines
38945view 16:09, 24 September 2010KhanspersFixed data nodes
38944view 16:03, 24 September 2010KhanspersChanged cell compartments
37853view 11:22, 12 July 2010KhanspersModified categories
37640view 08:30, 14 June 2010LauraSSpecify description
37639view 08:22, 14 June 2010LauraSModified description
37638view 08:21, 14 June 2010LauraSModified description
37637view 08:05, 14 June 2010LauraSSpecify description
37636view 07:55, 14 June 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
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37627view 07:11, 14 June 2010LauraSSpecify description
37626view 07:08, 14 June 2010LauraS14-06-2010
37624view 07:00, 14 June 2010LauraS14-06-2010
37622view 06:55, 14 June 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
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37222view 09:00, 22 May 2010LauraSSpecify description
37221view 08:29, 22 May 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
37220view 08:19, 22 May 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
37219view 08:09, 22 May 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
37209view 13:27, 21 May 2010LauraSVesselformation
37208view 13:19, 21 May 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
37207view 12:58, 21 May 2010LauraSPeriodical save, work in progress
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External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKT1GeneProductENSG00000142208 (Ensembl)
ARNTGeneProduct405 (Entrez Gene)
Ang 1GeneProductQ15389 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
CBPGeneProduct1387 (Entrez Gene)
FAKGeneProductQ05397 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
FGF2GeneProductENSG00000138685 (Ensembl)
FGFR2GeneProduct2263 (Entrez Gene)
FLT1GeneProductENSG00000102755 (Ensembl)
HIF1AGeneProduct3091 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK1GeneProductENSG00000100030 (Ensembl)
MMP2GeneProductENSG00000100985 (Ensembl)
MMP9GeneProductENSG00000100985 (Ensembl)
NOSGeneProductENSG00000164867 (Ensembl)
PDGFBGeneProductENSG00000100311 (Ensembl)
PDGFRAGeneProductP16234 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
PI3KGeneProduct5290 (Entrez Gene)
PLCG1GeneProductENSG00000124181 (Ensembl)
SMAD1GeneProductENSG00000170365 (Ensembl)
SRCGeneProductENSG00000197122 (Ensembl)
TIE2GeneProduct7010 (Entrez Gene)
TIMP2GeneProductENSG00000035862 (Ensembl)
TIMP3ProteinENSG00000100234 (Ensembl)
VEGFAGeneProductP15692 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
VEGFR2GeneProduct3791 (Entrez Gene)
p38 MAPKGeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)
sTIE2GeneProduct7010 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>