Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart (Homo sapiens)

From WikiPathways
Jump to: navigation, search
Apoptosis Contractility Electrophysiology defects Contractility Cellular growth Survival GPCR agonists (mechanical, oxidative, metabolic) Pathological remodeling Cytokines Decompensated heart failure Physioclogical Hypertrophy Stress Hypertrophic gene expression Label Compensatory hypertrophy PAK PKCE p38b STAT3 erk RAS Gq Rac1 Gi MKK3 CTF1 PE Calcium Calmodulin CamK JNK p38 LIFR gp130 MEF-2 p38a PKCb JNK RhoA CalNB CalNA C-JUN FOS ET-1 Ang II NFAT3 GATA-4 Name: Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart License: CC BY 2.0 Organism: Homo sapiens


Pathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathological pathways utilizing a transgenic approach." Hypertrohpy of the heart can be a physiological compensation for exercise, but it can also be a pathological compensation for hypertension and stress.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Wollert KC, Taga T, Saito M, Narazaki M, Kishimoto T, Glembotski CC, Vernallis AB, Heath JK, Pennica D, Wood WI, Chien KR; ''Cardiotrophin-1 activates a distinct form of cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy. Assembly of sarcomeric units in series VIA gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-dependent pathways.''; J Biol Chem, 1996 PubMed
  2. Molkentin JD, Lu JR, Antos CL, Markham B, Richardson J, Robbins J, Grant SR, Olson EN; ''A calcineurin-dependent transcriptional pathway for cardiac hypertrophy.''; Cell, 1998 PubMed
  3. Clerk A, Sugden PH; ''Small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and myocardial hypertrophy.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed
  4. Olson EN, Molkentin JD; ''Prevention of cardiac hypertrophy by calcineurin inhibition: hope or hype?''; Circ Res, 1999 PubMed
  5. MacLellan WR; ''Advances in the molecular mechanisms of heart failure.''; Curr Opin Cardiol, 2000 PubMed
  6. Hunter JJ, Chien KR; ''Signaling pathways for cardiac hypertrophy and failure.''; N Engl J Med, 1999 PubMed
  7. Wang Y, Su B, Sah VP, Brown JH, Han J, Chien KR; ''Cardiac hypertrophy induced by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, a specific activator for c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in ventricular muscle cells.''; J Biol Chem, 1998 PubMed
  8. Molkentin JD; ''Calcineurin and beyond: cardiac hypertrophic signaling.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed
  9. Jalili T, Takeishi Y, Walsh RA; ''Signal transduction during cardiac hypertrophy: the role of G alpha q, PLC beta I, and PKC.''; Cardiovasc Res, 1999 PubMed
  10. Heineke J, Molkentin JD; ''Regulation of cardiac hypertrophy by intracellular signalling pathways.''; Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2006 PubMed
  11. Bueno OF, De Windt LJ, Tymitz KM, Witt SA, Kimball TR, Klevitsky R, Hewett TE, Jones SP, Lefer DJ, Peng CF, Kitsis RN, Molkentin JD; ''The MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway promotes compensated cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic mice.''; EMBO J, 2000 PubMed
  12. Takeishi Y, Ping P, Bolli R, Kirkpatrick DL, Hoit BD, Walsh RA; ''Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active protein kinase C epsilon causes concentric cardiac hypertrophy.''; Circ Res, 2000 PubMed
  13. Wollert KC, Chien KR; ''Cardiotrophin-1 and the role of gp130-dependent signaling pathways in cardiac growth and development.''; J Mol Med, 1997 PubMed
  14. Lim HW, Molkentin JD; ''Calcineurin and human heart failure.''; Nat Med, 1999 PubMed
  15. Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathological pathways utilizing a transgenic approach.''; Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2001 PubMed
View all...


View all...
97641view 07:32, 31 May 2018AMTanOntology Term : 'cardiac muscle cell' added !
94723view 07:21, 5 October 2017EgonwConnected lines.
88320view 08:40, 1 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathway' added !
78581view 07:50, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
68953view 10:37, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
45248view 11:35, 7 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'heart disease' added !
41110view 16:22, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39763view 00:39, 17 January 2011AlexanderPicomore complete title
37536view 06:21, 9 June 2010MLevelsSpecify description
37535view 06:19, 9 June 2010MLevelsModified description
37279view 00:30, 24 May 2010MLevelsID
37157view 07:57, 18 May 2010MLevelsMoved Line
37156view 07:49, 18 May 2010MLevelsLabels
37155view 07:45, 18 May 2010MLevelsLabels
37154view 07:42, 18 May 2010MLevelsLabels
37124view 06:45, 17 May 2010MLevelsModified description
37121view 06:34, 17 May 2010MLevelsName changed
37120view 06:26, 17 May 2010MLevelsRemoved some of the added things, making a separate pathway for those.
37116view 06:02, 17 May 2010MLevelsAdded some lines and literature
37114view 05:40, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37098view 02:24, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37097view 02:19, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37096view 02:16, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37090view 01:01, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37089view 00:56, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37087view 00:41, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37085view 00:32, 17 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
37084view 00:26, 17 May 2010MLevelsAdded Literature
36876view 06:02, 12 May 2010MLevelsminor change
36875view 05:49, 12 May 2010SusanID phenylephrine
36874view 05:44, 12 May 2010SusanID calcineurin
36873view 05:34, 12 May 2010SusanID calmodulin
36871view 05:05, 12 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
36870view 05:00, 12 May 2010MLevelsMinor changes
36863view 03:01, 12 May 2010MLevelsAdded Literature, changed title
36856view 07:52, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36855view 07:31, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36854view 07:21, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36853view 06:29, 11 May 2010MLevelsMinor Change
36852view 06:19, 11 May 2010MLevelsminor change
36851view 05:13, 11 May 2010MLevelsminor change
36850view 03:54, 11 May 2010MLevelsModified categories
36849view 02:31, 11 May 2010MLevelsLiterature
36848view 02:16, 11 May 2010MLevelsAdded labels
36847view 01:45, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36846view 01:35, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36845view 01:17, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36844view 01:06, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36843view 00:55, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress
36842view 00:45, 11 May 2010MLevelsPeriodical save, work in progress

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
Ang IIGeneProduct183 (Entrez Gene)
C-JUNGeneProduct3725 (Entrez Gene)
CTF1GeneProduct1489 (Entrez Gene)
CalNAGeneProduct5530 (Entrez Gene)
CalNBGeneProduct5532 (Entrez Gene)
CalciumMetaboliteHMDB00464 (HMDB)
CalmodulinProtein801 (Entrez Gene)
CamKGeneProduct817 (Entrez Gene)
ET-1GeneProduct1906 (Entrez Gene)
FOSGeneProduct2353 (Entrez Gene)
GATA-4GeneProduct2626 (Entrez Gene)
JNKGeneProduct5599 (Entrez Gene)
LIFRGeneProduct3977 (Entrez Gene)
MEF-2GeneProduct50804 (Entrez Gene)
MKK3GeneProduct5606 (Entrez Gene)
NFAT3GeneProduct4776 (Entrez Gene)
PEMetaboliteHMDB02182 (HMDB)
PKCEGeneProduct5581 (Entrez Gene)
PKCbGeneProduct5579 (Entrez Gene)
Rac1GeneProduct5879 (Entrez Gene)
RhoAGeneProduct387 (Entrez Gene)
STAT3GeneProduct6774 (Entrez Gene)
erkGeneProduct5594 (Entrez Gene)
gp130GeneProduct3572 (Entrez Gene)
p38GeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)
p38aGeneProduct1432 (Entrez Gene)
p38bGeneProduct5600 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

<cite>No annotated interactions</cite>